gut brain chemokines Merino JJ 2012.pdf
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Role of chemoines in cancer


Amedei A, Prisco D, D'Elios MM. The Use of Cytokines and Chemokines in the Cancer Immunotherapy.Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov. 2012 Aug 13




The response of the body to cancer is not a unique mechanism and has many parallels with inflammation and wound healing. Unresolved inflammation generates a microenvironment favorable for cellular transformation and the growth of cancer cells. Chronic tissue damage triggers a repair response that includes the production of growth factors, cytokines and chemokines. Cytokines and chemokines have a crucial role in cancer-related inflammation with consequent, direct and indirect effects on the
proliferative and invasive properties of tumor cells. In view of the multifactorial functions of cytokines and chemokines in tumorigenesis, the elucidation of their roles will further advance our understanding of the patho-physiological processes of tumor development and highlights potential innovative anti-cancer strategies. Despite recent advances, main anti-cancer therapies, namely surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy, are limited in heir ability to treat minimal and metastatic residual disease. Furthermore, the benefit of conventional therapies is often limited by collateral damage to normal tissues. Immunotherapy is a new avenue of cancer treatment being investigated by researchers and clinicians for different cancer types. The aim of this paper is to analyze the recent patents and scientific reviews on the major cytokine/chemokine pathways involved in cancer immunotherapy and discuss their basic biology, clinical relevance and potential directions for future anti-cancer therapeutic applications.



Demetter P, Maréchal R, Verset L, Salmon I, Bachet JB, Van Laethem JL. Molecular changes in pancreatic cancer: implications for molecular targeting therapy.Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 2012 Jun;75(2):210-4.


Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has a high mortality rate, which is generally related to the initial diagnosis coming at late stage disease combined with a lack of effective treatment options. Gemcitabine has been the most commonly used drug over the past decade and is still the cornerstone of therapy in adjuvant and metastatic settings. Intrinsic or acquired resistance of tumours to gemcitabine is, however, a major clinical problem. New therapeutic strategies are urgently needed whereas we also need to identify new prognostic and predictive biomarkers. This article focuses on gemcitabine resistance, on the role of chemokines and chemokine receptors in pancreatic carcinoma initiation and progression, and on stellate cells as partners in crime with neoplastic epithelial cells.



Picardo SL, Maher SG, O'Sullivan JN, Reynolds JV. Barrett's to Oesophageal Cancer Sequence: A Model of Inflammatory-Driven Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer Dig Surg. 2012 Aug 3;29(3):251-260.




Cancer-related inflammation is considered the 'seventh hallmark of cancer'; many studies show that tumours develop and progress within inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on Barrett's oesophagus, a common condition in which chronic inflammation and resulting alterations in the stroma can lead to carcinogenesis, specifically oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Changes that occur in the tissue microenvironment during development of this disease are discussed. Infiltration of immune cells facilitates tumour development through production of factors that promote carcinogenesis and by enabling tumours to evade the host immune response. Small molecules including cytokines, chemokines and growth factors play key roles in both inflammation and cancer by promoting proliferation, angiogenesis and¡ carcinogenesis and by recruiting immune cells. The extracellular matrix is altered in inflammation, and provides structural support to developing  tumours. Hypoxia is a common state in cancers and inflamed tissues which causes DNA damage and induces tumourigenic factors. Finally, tissue vasculature is a vital part of its microenvironment, supplying oxygen, nutrients and growth factors to rapidly dividing cells, and providing a mechanism for metastatic spread. The cells and molecules outlined here represent potential targets for treatment of this cancer, especially in its pre-cancerous, inflammatory stage. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.